Wednesday, September 25, 2013

1945. The Nazi Surrender to Field Marshal Montgomery

500,000 MORE SURRENDER TO MONTGOMERY; YIELD IN HOLLAND, DENMARK, NORTH REICH; U.S. AND SOVIET UNITS HACK CZECH POCKET
Montgomery Scorns Nazis, Exults, 'This Is the Moment'
Bill Downs broadcasting from Lüneburg on V-E Day, May 8, 1945.
COLUMBIA BROADCASTING SYSTEM
BILL DOWNS
Friday - May 4, 1945
4:30 P.M.

(Eyewitness account of the formal surrender of the German armies in Italy to Field Marshal Montgomery).

(Printed in full in the London Daily Express and New York Times the next morning). 
BILL DOWNS: More than one million Germans on Field Marshal Sir Bernard L. Montgomery's 21st Army Group front surrendered on this historic May 4, bringing hostilities to an end for the Canadian Army fighting in Holland and the British Second Army fighting in northern Germany. Other dispatches and previous estimates set the figure of troops involved at well over 500,000, but not more than 600,000. It was the biggest mass surrender of German forces since the Armistice of 1918 (provided the higher figure is correct). 
A German surrender mission headed by Admiral von Friedeburg, Commander-in-Chief of the German Navy, signed articles of unconditional surrender for the German land, sea, and air forces facing the Canadian First Army and the British 2nd Army at 6:25 o'clock this evening. Field Marshal Montgomery signed on behalf of the Allied Supreme Commander-in-Chief, General Dwight D. Eisenhower.

The signing occurred in a tent set up especially for the ceremony in front of Marshal Montgomery's headquarters on the Lüneburg Heath just south of Hamburg. It is significant that the northern German armies were surrendered on this barren, artificially-forested heath, which for years has served as the training ground and birthplace for German armies. It was here that technically a large part of the Wehrmacht died.

For this northern European front, it means that the fighting for the Canadian and British armies here is virtually finished. The only European nation in northern Europe to be liberated is Norway. There still is the Dunkerque pocket, but these events must have a tremendous effect on the Germans still holding out there.

In the words of Field Marshal Montgomery as he walked to the tent where the official signing took place, grinning and commenting to the reporters:

"This is the moment! It was a great moment, a historic moment, there in the cold rain, the blustering winds on the Lüneburg Heath, in the heart of northern Germany; a great moment not only for Britain and Canada but for the American 82nd Airborne Division, the American Eighth Infantry Division, and the American Seventh Armored Division, fighting under the Second Army in its hour of victory."

It was also a great moment for America and Russia and France and the world.

Here is the background of the historic signing of the biggest mass surrender of German forces since the Armistice of 1918. The stage was set for the big surrender in the north when the British Sixth Airborne Division, operating under the American 18th Airborne Corps., drove northward to the Cleve-Elbe River bridgehead south of Hamburg to reach the Baltic Sea at the city of Wismar. This happened Wednesday night.

Then the British paratroopers linked up with the Russians. Coming up on the right flank, the American Eighth Infantry Division and the American 82nd Airborne Division made linkups to the south of Wismar on Thursday, the next day, with the Russian Army.

What happened was that this drive to the Baltic carried the Second Army thrust directly behind the line of retreat of the Germany Army Group, the Nazi armies retreating before the drive in the north by General (Konstanting J.) Rokossovsky’s forces advancing westward.

In the first three days it is estimated that more than half a million prisoners were taken, mostly from this army group retreating westward. That explains the large number of staff officers who fell into British hands during these fateful days. We were capturing the generals before encountering their fighting troops.

The rout had set in for the German armies on the northern front. On Wednesday, May 2, a German general who said he commanded the so-called Army Group, hoisted a white flag and sent an emissary to the headquarters of the British Second Army. He said he commanded all the forces between the Baltic and the Weser River, the river running southward from Bremen. He said he wanted to surrender this army group.

General (Sir Miles C.) Dempsey, Commander of the Second Army, replied that he should start moving, and a rendezvous was arranged for Thursday. The German general did not appear, but he sent word that negotiations were going on a much higher level than his military station. He could not negotiate.

It was yesterday that a party of four higher German officials again hoisted a white flag and drove into the British lines. The head of the party was Admiral von Friedeburg, Commander-in-Chief of the German Navy who replaced Admiral (Karl) Doenitz while the latter assumed the title of Fuehrer. Von Friedeburg’s rank also carries the title of General of the Army, and thus he was able to negotiate for the ground forces as well.

With von Friedeburg was General Kinzel, the next ranking officer, who is chief of staff to Field Marshal (General Ernst) Busch, who is commander of the northern German armies. Field Marshal Busch, incidentally, is still missing from our prisoners’ list, but we should catch up with him soon. And next came Rear-Admiral Wagner, a staff officer to von Friedeburg and lastly—a Major Friede, a staff officer to General Kinzel.

This was the party who hoped to negotiate with Field Marshal Montgomery. They were taken to “Monty’s” Field headquarters on the Lüneburg Heath. He stepped out, returned their military--not Nazi--salute, and asked, as if they were vacuum cleaner salesman, “What do you want?”

The Germans replied:

“We come from Field Marshal Busch to ask you to accept the surrender of three German armies which now are withdrawing in front of the Russians in the Mecklenberg area.” These armies, it was later revealed, were the Third Panzer Army, the German 12th Army, and the 21st Army.

ANXIOUS ABOUT CIVILIANS

The Nazi officers continued: “We are very anxious about the condition of German civilians who are fleeing as the German armies retreat in the path of the Russian advance. We want you to accept the surrender of these three armies.”

To his everlasting credit, Field Marshal Montgomery turned down three German armies willing to surrender to him. “No,” he said. “Certainly not. Those German armies are fighting the Russians. Therefore if they surrender to anyone, it must be to the forces of the Soviet Union. They have nothing to do with me. I have nothing to do with the happenings on my eastern front. You go surrender to the Soviet commander. The subject is closed.”

Then Field Marshal Montgomery asked: “Are you prepared to surrender the German forces on my northern and western flanks? Those forces between Lübeck and Holland and the forces in support of them, such as those in Denmark?”

The Germans said no, but they added that again they were anxious about the conditions of the German civilians on the northern flank. “We would like to come to some agreement with you by which the civilians would be saved from battle slaughter,” they said.

Then the German commander proposed a complicated and difficult military program covering the next few weeks, in which the British Second Army would advance slowly while at the same time the German troops, by agreement, would retreat slowly. It would work well for the Germans.

Again Monty said: “No, I will not discuss what I propose to do in the future—nothing.”

MAP SHOCKS ENEMY

Then the British Field Marshal took the offensive. “I wonder,” he said, “whether you know the battle situation on the Western Front.” And he produced his operational map; the war was too close to being won for it to have any security importance. This map, and what he said, was the final straw; the one factor which precipitated the surrender of one million Germans. The German commanders were shocked, astounded by the progress of the Allies in the East and the West.

It was lunchtime and they went off to lunch alone. Admiral von Friedeburg burst into tears when he got out of sight of Montgomery, and he wept throughout lunch. After lunch, Field Marshal Montgomery called the Germans back for further consultation, and there he delivered his ultimatum—an ultimatum that must have hurt the Nazis as much as the landing in Normandy.

He told the Germans:

“You must understand three things: Firstly, you must surrender to me unconditionally all the German forces in Holland, Friesen and the Frisian Islands and Helgoland and all other islands in Schleswig-Holstein and in Denmark.

Secondly, when you have done that, I am prepared to discuss with you the implications of your surrender; how we will dispose of those surrendered troops, how we will occupy the surrendered territory, and so forth.

“And my third point: If you do not agree to Point I, the surrender, then I will go on with the war and I will be delighted to do so.”

Monty added, as an after-thought, “All your soldiers and civilians may be killed.”

One, two, three, finished. This shook them. They said that they came entirely to ask for the acceptance of three armies who wanted to surrender. They said they had no authority to agree to Monty’s demand. But they agreed that two of them would remain behind while the others presented the new terms of surrender to their superior.

So at 4 PM yesterday afternoon, Admiral von Friedeburg and Major Friede went back with the news. They returned today at about five o’clock in the afternoon with the complete acceptance of the unconditional surrender terms—and that’s how surrenders are made.

And this is what it looked like, the signing of a great surrender of the German forces in the north to British and Canadian armies. It was raining when we arrived at Monty’s headquarters, set in the shrubbed pines and firs at the Lüneburg Heath. The weather was more like fall than spring, with the winds of the North Sea whipping a cold drizzle over the whole landscape.

But overhead, whether or not, the Spitfires and Typhoons roared over, heading always northward, where Germans were reported trying to escape to Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. The air forces were continuing the attack until the last minutes of surrender, a sign of Allied strength built up in Germany.

We were led to a tent, a weather-beaten tent that had been pitched scores of times at the Field Marshal’s headquarters. It wasn't large; about ten feet wide and twenty feet long. Family size. Inside was set up an ordinary kitchen-size table. On top of it was a blue cloth. Between two microphones was an inkstand with an ordinary steel-tipped pen lying on top.

The German mission arrived and walked to the front of Monty’s caravan. Admiral von Friedeburg was invited inside for a last-minute conference. At this time it was not completely settled whether the German answer to the unconditional terms would be yes or no.

An extra person had arrived with the Admiral’s party, a Colonel Paulik, once a member of the staff of Field Marshal (General Wilhelm) Keitel; Keitel is second in command of the German armed forces only to Fuehrer Doenitz. The party had plenty of weight, but did not officially bear Keitel’s authority.

And while Monty and the Admiral were meeting in the caravan, the other Nazi bigwigs stood in the rain, cold and shivering, just like us reporters. Then they marched down the gravel path toward the tent.

There was Admiral von Friedeburg dressed in a gray leather-coat, German Navy style, with a battered hat on his head. But the striking thing was his face…the punched-in German face, deeply lined and absolutely gray and motionless.

His was the responsibility in the surrender mission, and he showed the strain of his duty. Frankly the Admiral, who wept so copiously at lunch the day before, today looked as if he had been crying ever since.

But the most magnificent figure was General Kinzel, the chief of staff for the German armies in the north. He was the perfect figure of what the world has come to know its sorrow as the German military peacock, complete with monocle.

General Kinzel wore a light green, fastidious German Army greatcoat, with brilliant red lapels. His monocle seemed to glisten even in the dull gray of the afternoon. If his face had not been set in concrete, you might have expected him to burst into song for a Viennese operetta. He was that beautiful. The small fry, the Colonels and Majors and all the rest of the surrender party, were gray ducks by comparison.

Again Field Marshal Montgomery kept the party waiting. They stood at attention around the kitchen table. Finally, the Marshal wearing immaculate British field battledress with red tabs on the lapels and a field marshal’s baton on his shoulders, almost sauntered down the path. He came to this reporter and said out of the corner of his mouth:

“This is the moment.”

He carried the surrender papers in his right hand. The moment he appeared the Germans snapped in attention, like puppets. The British Field Marshal sat down and stretched out his hand in invitation for the Nazis to do the same.

The cameras began to whirl and click, and Monty picked up the historic document that meant the surrender of more than a million Germans. He put up his horn-rimmed spectacles, picked up the papers and said, “I will now read the terms of the surrender.”

The Germans sat like statues, not a flicker of emotion on their faces. Solemnly, but with a note of triumph in his voice, Monty read the terms of surrender. You could tell he had been waiting in Alamein, in Tunis, and in Italy.
Then, one by one, the Germans signed. Admiral von Friedeberg, General Kinsel, Rear Admiral Wagner, staff officer to von Friedeberg; General Paulik and Major Freiberger. They didn't say a word or betray a single emotion; it was strictly Prussian ceremony for the Germans.

Then the Field Marshal took up the wooden pen with the steel tip. "And now," he said, "I will sign in behalf of the Supreme Allied Commander, General Eisenhower.

The ceremony took about five minutes.
Downs won the National Headliner's Club Award in 1945 for this report. Edward R. Murrow repeated some of Downs' account in a broadcast on May 4, 1945:


_____________________________________________________________

Admiral von Friedeburg committed suicide nineteen days later. Below is video of the signing and the terms of surrender.


Instrument of surrender signed at Luneburg, Germany, May 4, 1945 
Entered into force May 4, 1945; operative May 5, 1945 
The Axis in Defeat, Department of State publication 2423 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1945), p. 22  
1. The German Command agrees to the surrender of all German armed forces in Holland, in northwest Germany including the Frisian Islands and Heligoland and all other islands, in Schleswig-Holstein, and in Denmark, to the C.-in-C. 21 Army Group. This to include all naval ships in these areas. These forces to lay down their arms and to surrender unconditionally.  
2. All hostilities on land, on sea, or in the air by German forces in the above areas to cease at 0800 hours. British Double Summer Time on Saturday 5 May 1945.  
3. The German command to carry out at once, and without argument or comment, all further orders that will be issued by the Allied Powers on any subject.  
4. Disobedience of orders, or failure to comply with them, will be regarded as a breach of these surrender terms and will be dealt with by the Allied Powers in accordance with the accepted laws and usages of war.  
5. This instrument of surrender is independent of, without prejudice to, and will be superseded by any general instrument of surrender imposed by or on behalf of the Allied Powers and applicable to Germany and the German armed forces as a whole.  
6. This instrument of surrender is written in English and in German. The English version is the authentic text.  
7. The decision of the Allied Powers will be final if any doubt or dispute arises as to the meaning or interpretation of the surrender terms.
[Signatories]:
B. L. MONTGOMERY, Field-Marshal 
VON FRIEDEBURG  
KINZEL G. 
WAGNER  
POEECK